After independence from British rule, India remained a constant threat to Pakistan`s security, as Congress leaders soon began to reverse partition. India illegally conquered many parts of Pakistan by hook or crooks, and one of these disputed areas was the state of Kashmir. The first war for Kashmir took place in 1947-1948. The second war took place in 1965 on the same issue, which was a manifestation of the inherent hostility between the neighbors. The war began on September 6 with India crossing Pakistan across the international border in the darkness of the night. In seventeen days, thousands of people on both sides were wiped off the earth. The United States and the Soviet Union forced the UN to do its part for the peaceful solution and forced it to an amicable solution to all the problems between the two countries, because the war affected world peace. The efforts of the United Nations brought peace because both countries agreed to the ceasefire. In addition, Soviet Prime Minister Alexei Kosygin also played an important role in bringing countries to the negotiating table when he invited both sides to Tashkent. The agreement between India and Pakistan, which ended the largest military dispute over territorial disputes since World War II, was signed on January 10, 1966 in Tashkent, the capital of the then Uzbekistan SSR.
When negotiations began, the conflict between India and Pakistan seriously threatened stability in the region. This conflict between two major regional powers threatened to escalate into a much larger war involving other states. India was threatened by China, which was then an ally of Pakistan. Beijing has accused Delhi of aggression. Indian Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri and Pakistani President Ayub Khan met in Tashkent on January 4, 1966. The two leaders signed a pact called the Tashkent Declaration of 1966. IX The Prime Minister of India and the President of Pakistan agreed that the parties would continue their meetings at the highest and other levels on issues of direct concern to both countries. Both sides recognized the need to establish joint Indo-Pakistani bodies to report to their governments to decide on further steps to be taken. Muhammad Ayub Khan (1907-1974) President of Pakistan The 50th President of Pakistan. The anniversary of the Tashkent Declaration, an agreement to end hostilities between India and Pakistan, was celebrated on Sunday, 10 January.
The declaration was signed in the Soviet Union after the mediation of Soviet diplomacy under the personal leadership of Alexei Kosygin, Chairman of the Council of Ministers. This document is considered one of the best examples of diplomatic mediation by the Soviet Union in world politics, even if the resulting peace did not last long. IV The Prime Minister of India and the President of Pakistan agreed that both sides will discourage any propaganda directed against the other country and promote propaganda that promotes the development of friendly relations between the two countries. Tashkent Agreement (10. January 1966), an agreement signed by Indian Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri (who died the next day) and Pakistani President Ayub Khan, ending the 17-day war between Pakistan and India from August to September 1965. The United Nations Security Council concluded an armistice on September 22, 1965. The night after the declaration was signed, the Indian leader died of a heart attack. He fell ill immediately after the talks and attempts by leading cardiologists could not save Shastri`s life. However, the ceasefire was fragile and the conflict could have resumed at any time. Sensing the need for a more binding agreement, the Soviet Union offered to act as a mediator, with the personal participation of Kosygin, the chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR. According to contemporaries` memoirs, Kosygin played a crucial role in finding a solution to the Indo-Pakistani conflict, as he enjoyed the trust of both sides.
The deal has been criticized in India for not containing a non-war pact or a renunciation of guerrilla warfare in Kashmir. After the signing of the agreement, Indian Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri died mysteriously in Tashkent.  Shastri`s sudden death led to persistent conspiracy theories that he was poisoned.  The Indian government refused to publish a report on his death, arguing that it could affect foreign relations, disrupt the country and violate parliamentary privileges.  In accordance with the Tashkent Declaration, discussions took place at ministerial level on 1 and 2 March 1966. Despite the fact that these talks were unproductive, diplomatic exchanges continued throughout the spring and summer. The results were not achieved in these talks because there was disagreement on the Kashmir issue. The news of the Tashkent declaration shocked the People of Pakistan, who expected more concessions from India than they received. Things deteriorated further when Ayub Khan declined to comment and withdrew instead of announcing the reasons for signing the agreement.
Protests and riots broke out in various parts of Pakistan.  To assuage the anger and concerns of the people, Ayub Khan decided to present the case to the people by addressing the nation on January 14, 1966. It was the difference with the Tashkent Declaration that eventually led to the removal of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto from Ayub`s government, who later founded his own party, the Pakistan People`s Party. Although Ayub Khan was able to satisfy the concerns of the people, the Tashkent declaration severely damaged his image and was one of the factors that led to his overthrow.  Despite this tragic event, the Tashkent Declaration was considered a great success of Soviet diplomacy in the resolution of international conflicts. The statement was not well received in India. The deal was backed by the Indian National Congress Party and the Communist Party of India, but opposition parties said the peace treaty had demoralized the country. However, diplomatic efforts have been successful and India and Pakistan have signed the Tashkent Declaration, which urged both countries to cease hostilities, withdraw all forces from positions they occupied before the start of the conflict and resume diplomatic relations.
VI. The Prime Minister of India and the President of Pakistan agreed to consider measures to restore economic and trade relations, communication and cultural exchanges between India and Pakistan and to take steps to implement the existing agreements between India and Pakistan. .